SMOKING AND TOBACCO

1. Adverse effects of smoking

  • Various types of cancer
  • Pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases
  • Low birth weight

2. Risk factor for initiation and progression of periodontal disease.
3. Current smokers are about 4 times more likely to have advanced periodontal disease

  • compared to those who have never smoked

Direct association with:

  • Increased calculus deposition
  • Deeper pockets and greater attachment loss
  • More pronounced radiographic evidence of furcation involvement
  • Increased alveolar bone loss
  • Less favorable response to periodontal and implant therapy.

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